Laboratory Specimen Transport Guidelines in 2024

laboratory specimen transport

Laboratory specimen transport involves getting a patient sample to the lab for analysis and diagnosis while maintaining the specimen’s integrity and utility. Proper transport guidelines help ensure accurate test results, leading to appropriate patient care and treatment. Specimen handling guidelines cover everything from collection and stabilization to packaging, shipping temperatures, transport times, and chain of custody procedures.

With the growth of outpatient care and the rise of direct-to-consumer lab testing, more specimens are being transported to centralized labs and pathology centers. New technologies like telemedicine and at-home sample collection kits also impact transport logistics. Therefore, staying up-to-date on the latest evidence-based best practices for specimen transport is critical for delivering quality patient care.

Guidelines aim to balance feasibility and costs with the need to maintain sample quality. Transport conditions can lead to correct lab results that compromise patient diagnosis and safety. Factors like time, temperature, vibration, and contamination during transit can alter the analytes in the sample and must be properly controlled.

Clear, standardized transport protocols allow labs, clinics, couriers, and patients to properly collect, handle, and ship specimens. They provide instructions on correct specimen labeling, packaging, and shipping materials based on sample type. Guidelines also specify time limits, temperature parameters, and accountability procedures. Read on this blog post by Apollo Couriers to learn more.

Current Guidelines

The current best practices and guidelines for laboratory specimen transport aim to maintain sample integrity and diagnostic accuracy.

laboratory specimen transport

Some key elements of existing guidelines include:

  • Using proper collection techniques and appropriate collection containers to obtain quality specimens from the start. This includes using the right anticoagulants and preservatives for the sample type.
  • Following the CLSI’s GP41 guideline for properly labeling specimens to ensure positive patient identification. At a minimum, the label should include the patient’s name, ID number, and date/time of collection.
  • Adhering to required temperature conditions during transport based on sample type. For example, refrigeration at 2-8°C for chemistry samples or freezing at -20°C for microbiology.
  • Using insulated containers and cold packs or dry ice for temperature control. Packaging must maintain the required temperature range for the entire transport duration.
  • Minimizing mechanical shock, vibration, and direct sunlight exposure during handling and transport to prevent hemolysis and cellular damage.
  • Meeting chain of custody requirements with tracking procedures and documentation for each handoff from collection to receipt in the lab.
  • Complying with regulations for the safe transport of hazardous, radioactive, or infectious substances, including categorization, labeling, and approved courier transport.
  • Training staff on proper collection, handling, packaging, and transport techniques based on sample type. As well as troubleshooting and problem escalation policies.

The current guidelines provide the testing laboratory with a robust framework focused on sample quality and diagnostic integrity. While effective, emerging technologies present opportunities to further improve specimen transport logistics.

Advancements in Technology

Specimen transport has seen major technological advancements in recent years that have transformed how samples are handled and processed.

laboratory specimen transport

Some key innovations include:

  • Automated transport systems
  • RFID tracking
  • Diagnostic lab automation
  • Digital imaging
  • Mobile health apps
  • Drones

These innovations aim to improve diagnostic accuracy, reduce delays, and streamline healthcare workflows through advanced automation and tracking capabilities. Specimen integrity and healthcare outcomes will greatly benefit from these technologies in the future.


The automation of laboratory specimen transport has advanced significantly in recent years and is expected to continue trending upward.

Robotic couriers and conveyor systems are increasingly being utilized to move specimens between different areas of large hospitals and clinical laboratories. These systems provide more efficient routing and delivery compared to manual transport. Devices equipped with sensors and barcode scanning technology enable fully automated sorting and distribution of specimens to the appropriate workstations and diagnostic equipment.

Implementation of track and trace automation allows specimens to be monitored in real-time across the entire transport chain, improving turnaround times for test results. Software platforms can manage and optimize automated delivery based on variables like the urgency of the specimen, test type, and destination lab location. As artificial intelligence capabilities progress, machine learning algorithms will further enhance automated transport logistics and traffic management.

Expanding reliance on robotics reduces human errors in handling and misplacing specimens. Automated systems have built-in checks to ensure the right specimens arrive at the intended destinations. Specimens remain enclosed inside secure containers throughout the automated transport process, minimizing leaks, spills, or external contamination risks. In laboratories, robotic arms with gripper devices are utilized for automated aliquoting, sorting, and archiving specimens.

Overall, advancing automation will likely transform specimen transport operations in healthcare facilities over the next few years. This transition can significantly improve precision, efficiency, chain of custody, and standardization across the pre-analytical phase.

Diagnostic Accuracy

Laboratory testing’s diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of the specimen that arrives at the laboratory.

laboratory specimen transport

Mishandling or delays during transport can alter the specimen and lead to erroneous test results. Recent advances in transportation methods aim to improve diagnostic accuracy by optimizing specimen integrity throughout the journey.

One area of focus has been temperature control during transport. Precise temperature maintenance is critical for specimens such as blood samples, urine, sputum, and tissue biopsies. Cold temperatures help preserve the specimen in its original state. Excessive heat or freezing can damage cells and biochemical components, skewing test results. New transport containers allow programmable temperature regulation within ±1°C to keep specimens in optimal condition.

Automated monitoring systems are also being adopted to track critical transport parameters in real time. GPS tracking provides location data and timestamps to pinpoint deviations from the ideal transport environment. Alerts can notify couriers, such as a temperature spike if something has gone wrong. This allows rapid corrective action to avoid test result errors.

Precise volume sensors are another emerging technology for detecting leakage or spillage within the transport container. Small changes in specimen volume that may go unnoticed by couriers can be flagged before receipt at the lab, preventing loss of sample integrity.

Leveraging transport data analytics and the latest sensors and telemetry systems will enhance diagnostic accuracy. Specimens will undergo less alteration between the patient and the laboratory, yielding more reliable test results. Transport monitoring safeguards sample quality despite logistical challenges.

Specimen Integrity

Safeguarding samples’ biophysical fidelity is critical to effective specimen transport and laboratory testing.

laboratory specimen transport

New guidelines emphasize techniques and protocols for ensuring optimal specimen integrity from collection through analysis.

Key measures in protocols include:

  • Standardization of allowable transport times for samples to undergo testing to avoid degradation. For example, certain enzyme tests must be performed within 8 hours to provide accurate results.
  • Robust chain of custody procedures, using technologies like RFID tags and blockchain to log verifiable time/temperature data. This provides quality assurance and identifies any potential lapses during transport.
  • Enhanced training for healthcare staff on proper sample collection and handling techniques matched to advanced analytic capabilities. For example, smaller blood draws using capillary techniques require skills different from venipuncture.
  • Expansion of point-of-care and bedside testing to minimize pre-analytic errors from transport where clinically appropriate and cost-effective. New microfluidic and nanotechnology-based diagnostics make this viable for an increasing number of tests.

Adherence to these updated protocols could ensure the highest quality specimens are obtained and maintained throughout the testing process. This will improve diagnostic performance and patient care while reducing costs from re-collection or inaccurate results.

Temperature Control

Keeping specimens at the proper temperature is critical for maintaining sample integrity and diagnostic accuracy. Significant advances in temperature monitoring and control have been made in recent years. Many new transport containers now feature built-in digital thermometers that continuously monitor and record temperatures throughout transport. Some also have active cooling elements that turn on if the temperature rises above a set limit.

Smart packaging is being developed to indicate unsafe temperature excursions. These include temperature-sensitive labels, dyes, and inks that visually alert if specimens get too hot or cold. RFID temperature loggers are also being integrated into transport containers and specimen bags. These loggers can wirelessly transmit temperature data to central databases for monitoring and compliance reporting.

Phase change materials are also seeing wider use. These materials can absorb heat and smooth out temperature fluctuations during transport. Advancements are being made in low-temperature gel packs and heat barrier packaging that help maintain chilled or frozen specimens.

Many labs are also implementing remote, real-time monitoring of transport temperatures. GPS trackers with temperature sensors allow 24/7 visibility into conditions during transport. With sufficient forewarning of temperature concerns, mitigation steps can be taken to protect specimen integrity.

Overall, technologies that stabilize and monitor temperatures during transport have advanced considerably in recent years. Tighter temperature control helps ensure specimen quality is maintained throughout the pre-analytic phase.

Packaging and Handling

Advancements in packaging and handling techniques will lead to major improvements in specimen transport in 2024.

laboratory specimen transport

Packaging innovations like vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) provide superior insulation to traditional foam boxes. VIPs reduce the loss of cold over time by up to 50% for the same foam thickness. This allows samples that need refrigeration to stay colder for longer periods during transport.

Smart packaging solutions that can monitor conditions and send alerts will become more prevalent. Packages will contain sensors that continually check the temperature, GPS location, light exposure, humidity, and more. If measurements fall outside the recommended range, automatic alerts notify couriers to take corrective action or send a replacement package. This improves monitoring and reduces human error.

Some packaging will have built-in phase change materials that stabilize temperatures. These materials absorb heat as they melt, keeping the package cool. They release heat as they re-solidify, preventing the package from getting too cold. This provides a consistent temperature range throughout transport.

Robotics and automation will assist with safe handling. Robots with specialized grippers can precisely pick up and move biospecimen tubes and track samples. Automated storage systems sort samples accurately, reducing reliance on error-prone manual handling.


The transport of laboratory specimens is highly regulated to ensure proper handling and patient safety. We can expect some regulatory changes and increased oversight.

Individual states are expected to enhance their oversight of in-state specimen transport by clinical laboratories. State health departments will likely introduce new accreditation requirements and standard operating procedures for labs that handle specimen shipments. This aims to mitigate the risk of specimens being mishandled, arriving late to labs, or being compromised during transit. Strict state regulations will mandate compliance for all laboratories operating within that jurisdiction.

In summary, laboratories and diagnostic companies should be prepared for increased regulatory scrutiny of specimen transport practices. Key areas for review will include chain of custody, temperature control, package integrity, and reporting of any errors or exceptions during transport. Following clear regulatory guidelines will be essential for maintaining patient safety and high-quality laboratory testing.


Below are some of your most recently asked questions:

The basic principles of laboratory specimen transport involve ensuring the integrity of the specimen through proper packaging, labeling, and handling. This process is critical to prevent contamination, degradation, or spillage, ensuring accurate analysis and diagnosis.

Specimens should be packaged following a triple packing system: primary container (leak-proof), secondary container (also leak-proof and able to withstand leaking from the primary container), and an outer shipping container. Each layer should have sufficient absorbent material to absorb the entire volume of the specimen.

The specimen’s label must include the patient’s full name, date of birth, date and time of specimen collection, type of specimen, and the requesting physician or department. This helps ensure proper identification and processing at the laboratory.

Yes, infectious specimens require strict adherence to biohazardous material transport regulations. This typically involves using biohazard bags or containers for the secondary packaging and clearly marking the outer container with biohazard symbols. Ensure compliance with local, national, and international regulations depending on the transport distance.

Future Outlook & Conclusion

The future of laboratory specimen transport is expected to see continued advancements and changes in the coming years. Here are some predictions for what guidelines may look like by 2024:

  • There will be increased use of automation and robotics for specimen transport within healthcare facilities. Pneumatic tube systems and autonomous mobile robots will become more widespread, allowing faster and more reliable delivery of specimens with less human error. This is expected to improve turnaround times and optimize workflow.

  • More advanced temperature-controlled containers and smart packaging to protect specimen integrity. Nanotechnology and phase change materials may better regulate temperatures during transport. GPS and sensors could track conditions in real-time and alert to any changes. Specimens like blood samples will remain viable for longer.

  • The transition towards point-of-care testing for some tests. With improved portable analyzers, some basic tests could be conducted at patient bedsides or in physician offices rather than needing to transport specimens to labs. This could significantly decrease turnaround times. Guidelines will need to address appropriate use cases.

  • Enhanced regulations around the safe transport of infectious or hazardous specimens. Stricter protocols may be established to protect healthcare workers and the public, for example, those related to air travel of specimens or environmental safety.

  • Increased standardization across healthcare networks and systems. More alignment on acceptable transport conditions, packaging, labeling requirements, chain of custody, and other best practices. This will improve efficiency as patients receive more integrated care.

  • The importance of proper training for personnel handling transport is continued. As transport processes evolve, ensuring all staff know the latest guidelines will remain critical for accuracy and safety.

As technology capabilities advance over the next few years, laboratories should stay informed on the latest best practices for transport. Following evidence-based guidelines will help uphold the highest quality standards and patient care. Contact Apollo Couriers for more information on how you could get your laboratory specimen samples delivered safely and efficiently.

go top